Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; Pythium; Root rots; Disease resistance; Genetic resistance; Beans; Africa
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[Field Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Rice] Rice in Latin America is affected by four major insect pests, four major weeds, the rice "hoja blanca" (or white leaf) virus, and two fungi. All these pathogens cause serious economic losses for rice farmers at certain times of the year. These species have also been reported as having caused heavy losses in rice yield in various Latin American countries, particularly Tagosodes orizicolus, the rice "hoja blanca" virus, and the fungi. An integrated pest management (IPM) program must have sufficient flexibility and competence to adapt to changes as needed to reduce the harm done by pests, while protecting the environment and workers' health. The IPM is not a technology, but a procedure for solving problems, with the farmer playing a vitally important role. The fourth, revised, and extended edition of this Guide has four sections, which discuss major rice insect pests, weeds, and diseases, and provides general recommendations for IPM for the rice crop.
Keywords: Oryza sativa; Rice; Pest insects; Tagosodes orizicolus; Lissorhoptus; Oebalus insularis; Spodoptera frugiperda; Weeds; Pyricularia; Rhizoctonia solani; Integrated control; Biological control; Cultural control; Chemical control; Crop management
Biological control in complex agro-ecosystems: how parasitoids cope with a multi-species infestation in cassava. Poster. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, CO. Presentated in "Herbsttagung der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fur Phytomedizin", Zurich, 4.10.2001.
Keywords: Manihot esculenta; Cassava; Phenacoccus herreni; Pseudococcidae; Acerophagus coccois; Aenasius vexans; Parasitoids; Biological control
[Biological and Microbiological Control of the Cassava Hornworm (Erinnyis ello) by a Baculovirus] This brief guide for extension workers and farmers deals with the biological control of the cassava hornworm (Erinnyis ello), a serious pest that eats cassava leaves. One method of control is based on the use of a baculovirus that naturally attacks the larvae of this nocturnal and migratory moth. Hornworm mortality reached 99.8% in some field evaluations. When applied as biocide, the baculovirus can drastically reduce and even eliminate the need for applying chemical pesticides. It has been successfully used in extensive cassava plantations in Venezuela and Brazil for several years. CIAT has stored the virus and has designed the following simple method for multiplying its samples: hornworm larvae are inoculated with the virus, collected from the field after death, then macerated in a blender. The resulting virus-laden liquid is filtered, mixed with water, then sprayed on cassava crops infested by the hornworm. The liquid biocide can be stored easily for long periods on the farm (kept either cool or frozen), and is ready to combat unexpected outbreaks of hornworm. With the collaboration of CIAT and the Colombian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the company BIOCARIBE S.A. of Medellin, Colombia, plans to initiate commercial production of the biocide in 2001.
Keywords: Manihot esculenta; Cassava; Biological control; Integrated control; Pest control; Disease control; Cultural control; Erinnyis ello; Trichogramma; Baculoviridae
[Baculovirus: A New Specialized Biological Product to Control the Cassava Hornworm (Erinnys ello)] Poster CIAT, MADR, BIOCARIBE. Memorias XXVIII Congreso Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología, SOCOLEN. Agosto 8-10, 2001, Pereira, Colombia.
Keywords: Manihot esculenta; Erinnyis ello; Pest insects; Pest control; Baculoviridae; Mass rearing; Biological control; Cassava
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