Although many consider farmer participatory research (FPR)-where farmers and researchers work together to develop new agricultural technologies-as "bringing substantial benefits" to farmers, others suggest it has "still to live up to its promise". FPR must therefore be carefully monitored and evaluated to ensure "quality control" and, particularly, to document and evaluate impact. This publication outlines the development of a participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) framework for such participatory research programs as the "Forages for Smallholders Project" (FSP), begun in 1995 in Southeast Asia. Examples are drawn from the FSP's fieldwork on extensive upland farming systems at two contrasting sites (Malitbog, Philippines, with a wetter climate, and M'Drak, Vietnam, with more acid soils), the presentations of a 5-day workshop, and selected literature on PM&E. Part A of the publication presents the conceptual and practical issues involved in developing PM&E for the FSP. Part B reviews a range of techniques for implementing PM&E. The publication developed out of a collaborative project between CIAT and the University of Queensland, with funds from the ACIAR.
Keywords: Research; Evaluation; Methods; Participatory research; Feed crops; forage; Case studies; Small farms; Asia
The present bibliography, developed in collaboration with the University of Hohenheim, Germany, compiles citations related to information on the tropical legume species Desmodium heterocarpon subsp. ovalifolium. The bibliography attempts to examine the species and its use as cover crop and forage legume over the past decades. Several international literature databases were reviewed (e.g. AGRICOLA, AGRIS, CAB) as well as those of local scientific institutes and universities in Central and South America. References considered were those where the species was more than just mentioned and where the information provided was regarded as useful. Only a few, especially important botanical references are included. Special emphasis was placed on the assessment of so-called 'grey literature', which represents a neglected but often valuable source of information especially regarding (1) countries with a burgeoning publication culture and (2) species of regional importance. The bibliography owes much to the GreyLit project of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)'s Library and Communications Unit where all references are available. For further reading, we recommend: http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/
Keywords: Desmodium ovalifolium; Feed crops; Feed legumes; Cover plants; Tropical zones; Forage; Bibliographies
This proceedings puts on record the papers and posters which were presented and the discussions which were held at the international workshop which marked the completion of the Forages for Smallholders Project. The workshop was held at Cagayan de Oro, the Philippines, from 12-15 October 1999. The objectives of the workshop were: to highlight emerging forage and feed resource technologies that have been adopted widely by resource-poor upland farmers in Southeast Asia; to review experiences and approaches that have led to adaptation and then adoption of new technologies by resource-poor farmers and the identify future research and development needs based on experiences at the farm level. Eighty researchers, development workers and administrators from Asia, Africa, Australia and South America participated in the workshop.
Keywords: Feed resources; Tecnological changes; Innovation adoption; Case studies; Soil conservation; Appropriate technology; Participatory research; Technology transfer; Rapid rural appraisal; Natural resources; Resource management; Community development; Extension activities; Geographical information systems; Germplasm; Forage; Philippines; Asia; Latin America; Central America; Colombia
Livestock are an important component of upland farming systems in Southeast Asia. In the past, feed resources were plentiful. On many farms this is no longer the case, so farmers have to spend more and more time finding feed for their animals. Planting forages can help to overcome this problem. However, no two farms have the same resources and needs. Forages that are suitable on one farm may not be suitable for other farms. The best way to develop the best forage technologies for each farm is for farmers to evaluate the most promising options and adapt the best of these to their situations. This booklet does contains information about forages that can grow in a wide range of conditions and either are being used successfully by smallholder farmers or have significant potential in Southeast Asia. Details on managing and using these species can be found in the second booklet of this series: "Developing forages with smallholder farmers: How to grow, manage and use forages".
All language versions of the books (currently English, Indonesian, Lao Thai, Chinese, Vietnamese and soon to include Burmese and Khmer) are available from the CIAT office in Vientiane.
Individuals and organizations from both developing and developed countries may request a free hardcopy of the book. Orders for multiple copies are sold at US$5 per copy (which includes postage).
Keywords: Feed crops; Choice of species; Small farms; Technological changes; Varieties; Asia; Participatory research
Small farmers in developing countries frequently use a new technology, be it fodder grass, upland rice variety, or crop management practice, in ways that agricultural researchers do not expect. To actively involve farmers in developing and evaluating new technologies, researchers conduct field experiments on farms, frequently in remote places.
Because farmers and field workers have little experience in running formal experiments, problems arise, not necessarily from poor experimental design, but from overlooking simple, important procedures like failing to prevent livestock from eating test plants or neglecting to label plots.
This guide provides practical tips, using forages as examples, for researchers, field workers, and students on how to avoid these common mistakes. The principles involved can also be applied to most crop plants.
This first edition, published in both English and Lao, was compiled by the FSP and the Lao Department of Livestock and Fisheries, with the collaboration of researchers and field workers throughout Southeast Asia, CSIRO, and AusAID-Lao PDR. The ACIAR provided funds for publication and distribution.
Keywords: Feed crops; Field experimentation; Planning; Site factors; Seed; Germination; Asia
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